Cytomegalovirus in Pregnancy: what it entils?
During Pregnancy, it is very important to check the health status of the mother-to-be and her baby by performers Routine Checkups and undergoing prenatal screening or prenatal diagnostic tests, such as amniocentesis, so as to detect any chromosomal abnormalities present in the fetus. Other Tests That The Mother-to-Bound Perform Are Ultrasound and Blood Tests, Which Can Reveal, For Example, Whether the Woman Has Contractd cytomegalovirus (CMV).
But what is cytomegalovirus?
This is a very common virus, Belonging to the family of the Herpesviridae. In Underdeveloped Countries, The Perntage of People Who Are Infected Reaches 90-100%, While About 60-80% of westernners have cytomegalovirus antibodies in Serum 1 .
If the infection occurs in adulthood, the symptoms are not much different from those of influenza. In contrast, if it occurs during pregnancy, when the woman goes through a decline in immune defenses, it becomes much more dangerous. First contact with cytomegalovirus results in so-called “primary infection,” when, on the other hand, it is contracted as a result of transmission from mother to fetus, it is called “congenital cytomegalovirus”. The latter case can have severe consequences in infants, so early diagnosis can make a difference 1 .
What happens to the baby
If cytomegalovirus infection occurs early, several consequences can occur in the child, including:
- mental retardation,
- Chorioretinitis i.and., an inflammatory disease affecting the eyes that can also cause blindness.
Whereas, If it occurs when the virus is “congenital,” This May Not Interfere with Embryonic Development 2 . Fortuntely, The Chances of Contracting The Virus in Pregnancy Are Not High. The percentage of Pregnant Women Infected is Between 1-4%, and of these Only One-Third Transmit the virus to the fetus 2 .
There are early screening tests that can detect cytomegalovirus infections in pregnancy. They are performed through Simple Blood Test That Assesses the presentce of Igg and Igm Antibodies, Indicators of A Ongoing Primary Infection. If the result of this test is positive, an igg avidity test (antibodies produced subsequent to igm) is recommended to Find Out Where the infection occurred befer or after conception 2 .
Prevention of infection is key
Virus Transmission Occurs Through Direct or Indirect Transmission of Body Fluids Such As Saliva and Urine, Oro-Parryngeal Secrets, Sexual Incrupers, Cervical and Vaginal Secrets, Breast Milk, Blood 3 . In Pregnant Women, On The Other Hand, Intrauterine Infection May Be a Consequence of infection contracts for the first time in Pregnancy via the transpLacental Route. Risks of Transmission to the fetus range from about 20 to 50 percent 3 .
For this Reason, Hand Washing and Proper Hygiene Are Crucial Prevention Tools, Espencialy If You Are In Contact With Children Up To Six Years Old. Even if no obvious sympoms are present, a child with congenital cytomegalovirus can be contagius for a few years and can transmit it to fellow kindergartners 2 .
Amniocentesis in Case of Positive Result
IF, Following Serological Screening, Positive IgG and IGM Are Found (Indicting that infection is occurring), IT May Be Useful to Undergo Amniocentesis to Assess Fetal Involvement 3 . Amniocentesis is a widely used invasive prenatal diagnostic test that can detect possible chromosomal alterations in the fetus, such as trisomies 18, 21 and 13.
To keep an eye on the health of the fetus, it is also important to undergo noninvasive prenatal screening tests, such as fetal DNA testing, an early test with a reliability rate of 99.9 percent and which can be performed as early as 10 weeks of pregnancy.
The first step is to consult your gynecologist of choice who will know which prenatal path to take.